Since 1999

A Year in Hindi Movies 1948 Part I

 1948 Part A: ASHA and KISHOR

To get information about these two giants of the Hindi
movie playback scene, get article numbers 11 and 12 for Asha
and article numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10 for Kishor. The articles
can be read on the RMIM archive [Check!].

Asha has sung the largest number of songs (about 7595
until 1994) for Hindi movies, and, she has said in
interviews that she also sang the largest number of songs
for Marathi movies. The definitive reference book
"svaraashaa" on Asha may be obtained from

Mrs. Vasanti Nerurkar,
2/15 Kailash Parwat, Gilbert Hill
Andheri, Bombay, 400058 India.
Phone number is 022-624-3587.

This 400 page book, has the first lines, music
directors, lyricists, other singers, movie, year of release
of all her Hindi movie songs, and also has about 40 pages
of pictures. In addition, it has many valuable lists. I have
not received my copy yet [I have it now].

She sang her first line in a chorus, "saavan aaya
(3) re", from chunariyaa (1948), MD Hans Raj Bahal and
lyricist Mulk Raj Bhakhari. She sang only the words,
"bahanaa khush ho ke sagan manaaye". The other singers
were Zohraa and Giitaa. Her first solo was, "hai.n mauj
me.n apane begaane" in the movie raat kii raanii (1949), MD
bahal and lyrics aarzuu lakhahnavii. The first song of
Asha that I have heard is from baavare nayan (1950), a duet
with rafii written by Kedar Sharma, MD Roshan. The duet is,
"muhabbat ke maaro.n kaa haal ye duniyaa me.n hota hai".
In this Platinum Decade (1941-50), she sang just 51

Some other female singers and their numbers for this
decade are:

Zohara     1229
Lata          383
Geeta        340

Asha will surpass all female singers in the next Golden
Decade and in every decade after that.

Kishor started his playback singing career with the
solo, "marane kii duaaye.n kyo.n maa.nguu.N" and a duet with
Lata, "ye kaun aayaa re" for Dev in the movie ziddii (1948),
MD Khemchandra Prakash and lyricist Professor Jazbii for the
solo and prem dhavan for the duet. The movie was directed by
shaahid latiif, also well-known as a story and a
dialog writer. Latiif was born on June 11, 1913 in
Chandausi, UP; graduated from Aligarh Muslim University;
joined Bombay Talkies in 1940. He collaborated on the
scripts of jhuulaa (1941), basant (1942) and, qismat
(1943). He directed movies like aarzuu (1950), buzdil
(1951), sone ki chi.Diyaa (1958), bahaare.n phir bhii
aaye.ngii (1966). His wife was the noted Urdu writer Ismat

The ziddi duet was Kishor's first duet with Lata, they
will sing 320 more duets. Kishor was not mentioned in the
credits, but he played a gardener, who made several witty
remarks to the audience. Once he helps Dev get out of a
ditch and speaks to him. The ziddi songs are the only two
songs he sang in 1948. In 1949, he sang 3, in 1950, 10,
for a total of 15 songs in Platinum Decade.
Asha and Kishor sang their first duet, "ek, do,
tiin, chaar, baaGo.n me.n aayii bahaar", from the movie
muqaddar (1950), MD James Singh, lyricist bharat
vyaas. I "downloaded" it from Radio Ceylon in 1976 or so.
It is quite good and reminds one of their mastii - bhare
duets in the Golden Decade.

Here are excerpts from my favorite interview of Kishor
that appeared in India Today of May 15, 1985. It was given
to Sumit Mitra and happened when he announced his retirement
from show-biz. At that time, he was 56, had had two heart
attacks, four marriages, an unending string of playback
hits, charging about Rs. 35,000 for one movie song.

IT: Which of the following are you first - director,
actor, singer?
KK: Actor. I am an actor who sings off the screen for
another actor. ...

IT: But if you'are constantly acting as a singer, don't
you think that you run the risk of losing a consistent
singing style?
KK: Who cares for singing styles in films really. K. L.
Saigal had the best style, but today's audiences will not
accept the unreality of a ceremomnial piece of music every
now and then. We playback singers develop a lot of vanity.
We tend to think of ourselves as singers independent of
the script.

IT: Aren't you handicapped by not being a trained musician?
KK: Very little. I have a good memory, and that helps. ...

IT: Is it not abhorrent that songs should be an integral
part of Indian commercial cinema ... ?
KK: Who am I to object to songs? It is my livelyhood. But
its responsibility lies with the filmmakers who, after 50
years of sound film, have not been able to give cinema an
identity of its own. ...they'll put the blame on the
audience. But the film-goers have been conditined to expect
a boy and a girl to burst into song when they meet. When a
man and a woman roll over each other on velvet grass in
Kashmir valley, you expect them to make love - not sing in
the voices of Kishore Kumar and Lata Mangeshkar.

IT: People here talk of your aloofness towards other singers
- like the late Rafi, and Lata Mangeshkar.
KK: That is utterly baseless. I had great regard for Rafi, a
singer of rare calibre. Lata is the goddess of singing;
she fully knows about my admiration for her. I think what is
more frequently criticised is not my attitude to colleagues
but my attitude to singing for films. Playback singing is
fun and good money. But it's not a big art really; only the
film and record people glorify it with all those gold and
silver discs given to singers. I wish I could take all of
them to the goldsmith and draw the metal out.

IT: Has Indian playback singing any future?
KK: Commercially, yes. Artistically, no. You don't expect
music to be brilliant when the films are so bad. Actually,
the B-grade movies that are doing good business now cater to
an audience which wants a lot of noise to fill the
soundtrack and a lot of feminine flesh to fill the optical
track. Jeetendra, Sridevi ... what kind of music do you
expect with these ingredients? The industry is full
of shopkeepers who'are out to make money - nor art.

IT: Who is the best music director you worked with?
KK: S. D. Burman. I owe everything to him.

IT: And the worst?
KK: I'll tell you after I reach Khandwa (his hometown where
he wants to retire.)

The second part of 1948 - A Year in Hindi Movies will posted soon.
Posted by Surjit Singh, a diehard movie fan(atic), period.

A Year in Hindi Movies 1948 Part II

1948 A year in Hindi Movies Part B


This all-India success took 5 years and Rs. 30 lakh to
make. It was produced and directed by the first Indian movie
mogul, Thiruthuraipundi Subramania Srinivasan, S. S. Vasan
to you. He was born on March 10, 1903 and died on August 26,
1969. His father died when he was young, and he could not
complete his education. He began procuring ads for magazines
and bought Ananda Vikatan,a poorly-selling weekly, which he
made into a success. He bought a film studio in an auction
and so Gemini Films was born. He became a director with
chandralekhaa, a trilingual. This movie was one of those
costume dramas, starring T. R. Rajkumari, Ranjan and M. K.
Radha. In a most memorable sequence, Rajkumari performs an
elaborate dance on drums, out of which Radha's soldiers
burst out. Then follows the longest sword duel in Indian
cinema. The movie was more than 3 hours long. The longest
Indian movie is meraa naam joker (1970), which was 4 hrs and
15 mts long, which pales in comparison with 85 hrs of the
longest movie ever made, The Cure for Insomnia (US 1987).
The music of chandralekhaa, provided by S. Rajeshwar Rao,
was influenced by Carnatic, Hindustani, Bharatnatayam, Latin
American, Portuguese folk music and a Strauss waltz.

Other countries

The first Pakistani movie, terii yaad, (in Urdu)
produced by Dewan Pictures, directed by Dawood Dewan,
starring Asha Posley and Nasir Khan was released this year.
The first bangladeshi movie was mukh o mukhosh (1956)
directed by Jabbar Khan. The first Nepali movie was
Harishchandra (1951) and first Sri Lankan movie was Banda
Nagarayata Pemineema (1953).

Back to some more Indian happenings in 1948.


The first production of R. K. Films, directed by Raj
Kapoor, starring himself and three popular heroines of the
day, nargis, kaaminii kaushal and nigaar. This was the first
movie of Inder Raj Anand who wrote the story. Before this,
he wrote plays like diivaar and Gaddaar for Prithvi
Theaters. The movie has some beautiful songs and music by
Ram Ganguly. My favorites are
kahiin kaa diipak kahiin kii baati - shamashaad and shailesh
kaahe koyal shor machaaye re - shamashaad
zindaa huu.N is tarah ki - mukesh
the first two by bahazaad laKanavii and the third by

anokhaa pyaar

This movie has 2 of the first 3 Lata-Mukesh duets [the
third one MD'ed by Gulaam haidar being, "ab Darane kii koii
baat nahii.n, angarezii chhoraa chalaa gayaa" in majabuur
(1948), a movie that also features the first Lata-Geeta
duet,"har shai pe javaani hai"]. Starring Dilip Kumar,
Nargis and Nalini Jayawant, anokhaa pyaar was the first
movie to have records featuring Lata in 10 out of 11 songs.
Out of these, 5 songs were sung by the MD anil bisvaas's
wife miinaa kapuur, who fell ill during the recording of the
discs, lucky break for the young Lata. I just love all the
songs; here they are:

gha.Dii gha.Dii puuchho naa jii - lata
mere phuulo.n me.n chhipii hai javaanii - lata
mere liye vo Game intazaar chh.D gaye - lata/miinaa
ai dil merii vafaa me.n koi asar - lata/miina & iraa naagarth
ab yaad na kar bhuul jaa ai dil vo - lata/miinaa & mukesh
yaad rakhanaa chaa.Nd taaro is suhaanii - lata/miinaa
yaad rakhanaa chaa.Nd taaro is suhaanii - lata & mukesh
jiivan sapanaa TuuT gayaa - lata
jiivan sapanaa TuuT gayaa - mukesh
bholaa bhaalaa rii moraa balamaa naa - lata
ek dil kaa lagaanaa baaqii thaa - lata/miinaa

The lyricists were nepaalii for number 1, bahazaad for 2,3,
shams aziimaabaadii for 4,5, ziyaa sarahadii for the rest.

anokhii adaa

Mehboob produced and directed this love triangle
starring prem adiib, surendra and nasiim, who gets amnesia
in a train accident. I like prem adiib's carefree acting and
all the 13 songs by naushaad. I constantly hum the 3 mukesh

manzil kii dhun me.n jhuumate gaate chale chalo
ye pyaar kii baate.n ye safar bhuul naa jaana
kabhii dil dil se Takaraataa to hoga,

the 2 duets

bhuul gaye kyo.n de ke sahaaraa - shamashaad,
kyo.n unhe.n dil diyaa, hay ye kyaa kiyaa - shamashaad,

and 2 umaa devii solos

kaahe jiyaa Dole ho kahaa nahii.n jaaye
dil ko lagaa ke hamane kuchh bhii naa paayaa

all written by shakiil. At one point in the movie, surendra
says, with a twinkle in his eye, to nasiim, "mai.n usase
kahii.n achchhaa gaa sakataa huu.n" referring to adiib who
mouths the mukesh songs.

aazaadii ke raah par

saahir ludhiaanavii wrote possibly his first 4 songs
for this movie,"jaag uthaa hai hindustaan", "mere charakhe
me.n jiivan kaa raag sakhii", "badal rahii hai zindagii",
"bhaarat jananii terii jay ho, vijaya ho". The movie had 2
more songs, "dil fidaa karate hai.n, qurbaan jigar karate
hai.n" by the famous freedom fighter raam prasaad bismil
and, "jha.N.Daa uu.Nchaa rahe hamaaraa" by shyaam laal gupt.

do kaliyaan

The first hindi movie directed by the famous Marathi
director, Rajaram Dattatreya Paranjape was a remake of his
Marathi "balidaan". An excellent actor and director, he was
born on April 24, 1910 in Miraj. Starting as a stage actor,
he joined Natyamanvantar in 1934. His first screen acting
role was in Baburao Painter's Savkari Pash (1936). He was
the "Paul Muni" of the Indian cinema. In other words, he
totally absorbed himself in the roles he played.

ghar kii izzat

Nice social starring Dilip and Mumataaz Shanti, with
jIvan playing the poor brother of the heroine. Music by
Gobind Ram is pleasing. I enjoy
baaG me.n koyaliya yahii gaaye re - shamashaad & zoharaa
merii duniyaa ke Gariibo jaago, jaago jaago - shamashaad & chorus
vaah re zamaane kyaa rang dikhaaye - rafii
the last sung by Dilip when he is sad and takes to drinking.
Apparently the following song was hurriedly inserted after
naathuuraam killed our father:

saarii duniyaa ke sarataaj, teraa amar - shamshaad, miinaa, chorus

Well, we reached the g's today. Soon we will continue with the rest of the alphabet. Enjoy!
Surjit Singh, a diehard movie fan(atic), period.

A Year in Hindi Movies 1948 Part III

 1948 A Year in Hindi Movies Part C

This is the final part of my post on 1948. Next time
1949. I goofed in the posting about aag (1948). My thanks to
all who pointed out the 2 errors, the first was Satish. Here
is the complete entry on aag from the Geet Kosh:


Produced by R.K. Films, Bombay, directed by Raj Kapoor,
MD raam ga.Ngulii, lyricists, bahazaad laKanavii, sarasvatii
kumaar diipak, majaruuh sultanapurii.
Players: Raj Kapoor, nargis, kaaminii kaushal, nigaar, kamal
kapuur, indumatii, premanaath, vishva meharaa, b. m. vyaas,

1. rab mere, araj sun merii - mukesh, shailesh, chorus
2. kahii.n kaa diipak - shamashaad, shailesh
3. zinda huu.N is tarah - mukesh
4. raat ko jii chamake.n taare - shamashaad, mukesh
5. naa aa.Nkho.n me.n aa.nsuu - shamashaad
6. kaahe koyal shor machaaye re - shamashaad
7. solah bars kii bhaii umariyaa - shamashaad, rafii, chorus
8. dil TiuuT gayaa jii chhuuT gayaa - shamashaad

The lyricist for 1 and 2 is diipak, for 4 is majaruuh and
bahazaad for all the rest.


Starring suraiyaa and motiilaal, it was MD'ed by
anil bisvaas. I have heard 3 songs, "duur papiihaa bolaa",
"jalane ke sivaa aur kyaa hai yahaa.N", by suraiyaa and
"kab aavoge baalamaa, baras baras badalii bhii bikhar gaii"
by lata.


The last movie directed by Virendra Chimanlal Desai,
husband of Nalini Jaywant. He directed 9 movies, among which
are Saigal's Gramophone Singer (1938), Mukesh's Nirdosh
(1941). In gunjan, Nalini Jaywant sang 6 out of 9 songs
under Ashok Ghosh's music direction.

hiir raanjhaa

The first movie of Kayyaam, in which he collaborated
with varmaajii to give music for 6 songs out of 11. Among
the songs are, "shaharo.n me.n se shahar sunaa thaa, shahar
sunaa laahor" by umaa devii and chorus, and "dil bujhaa
jaataa hai, naashaad huaa jaataa hai" by Geeta. Use the
automailer for more info on him.


Produced and directed by Protima Dasgupta, Hindi
actress, producer and director, educated in England and
Shantiniketan. This movie was banned by Morarjibhai for what
he opined were sexually explicit scenes, upon which the
movie flopped and Protima retired from the cinema.


Produced and directed by Uday Shankar (brother of Ravi
Shankar), the most well-known modern dancer of India. It
took 4 years and was shot in the Gemini Studios, where
chandralekhaa was also made. The choreography became a model
for the dream sequence in Awara (1951) and many others.
Padmini, one of the famous Travancore trio (other 2 are
Ragini and Lalitha), debuted in this movie.


Santoshi's social was the first time Lata sang with
shamashaad, mohanataaraa and chorus in the song, "Kushiyaa.N
mana-en kyo.n naa ham". CR gave the music.


When nandaa's father vinaayak died, Dinkar D. Patil
finished the movie. Lata and nandaa both acted in the movie,
but shantaa aapTe was the star.


Has 12 beautiful songs by naushaad and shakiil. Their
best film this year starred Dilip and Nargis. I can listen
to these for ever.

1. dharatii ko aakaash pukaare - shamashaad, mukesh
2. dharatii ko aakaash pukaare - shamashaad
3. parades balam tum jaaoge, kaho merii - shamashaad
4. Gam kaa fasaanaa kisko - shamashaad
5. mohan kii muraliyaa baaje, sun Thes - shamashaad
6. taqdiir banii ban kar biga.Dii - shamashaad
7. aaii saavan rut aaii, sajan moraa - shamashaad, mukesh, chorus
8. mai.n bhanvraa tuu hai phuul - shamashaad, mukesh
9. meraa dil to.Dane vaale mere dil kii - shamashaad, mukesh
10. gaaye jaa giit milan ke, tuu apanii - mukesh
11. phir aah dil se nikalii - zoharaabaaii
12. ye zingdagii ke mele, duniyaa me.n - rafii

nadiyaa ke paar

I like this Dilip-Kaushal starrer directed by Kishor
Sahu for Filmistan. This was the last movie of Kayoum
Mamajiwala Gohar, the star of silent screen, born in Lahore
in 1910, died in 1985. She was a child star. Later lived
together with Chandulal Shah, the famous mogul of Ranjit
Movies. Lata and Chitalkar had their first duet, "o gorii o
chhorii kahaa.N chalii ho" for this movie. The most famous
song is, "more raajaa ho, le chal nadiyaa ke paar" by Rafi
and Lalita Deulkar, future wife of sudhiir pha.Dake.

pyaar kii jiit

Wow, another hit musical from the team of husnalaal-
bhagataraam, starring suraiyaa. The first movie of director
O. P. Dutta, father of J. P. Dutta of Gulaamii (1985) fame.
When I listen to these songs on my car cassette player, the
tape gets worn out.

1. kabhii panaghaT pe aajaa - suraiyaa, miinaa, surinder kaur, chorus
2. rut rangiilii hai suhaanii raat hai - suraiyaa, miinaa, surinder kaur, chorus
3. tere naino.n ne chorii kiyaa - suraiyaa
4. o duur jaane vaale vaadaa naa - suraiyaa
5. koii duniyaa me.n hamaarii tarah - suraiyaa
6. mai.n apane dil ke haatho.n - surinder kaur, raam kamalaanii
7. ik dil ke tuka.De hazaar hu-e - rafii
8. itane duur hai.n huzuur, kaise - surinder kaur
Wow again. The last solo was surinder kaur's first Hindi
movie song.

rangiin zamaana or ajiit

Produced and directed by Mohan Dayaram Bhavnani, it was
India's second color film. It was, however, the first to be
shot on Kodachrome 16mm film and blown up to 35mm in US.
Bhavnani, born in 1903, studied at the College of Technology
in Manchester, then at UFA in Berlin. He worked with
Kohinoor and Imperial before forming his own companies.
After this movie, he joined Information Films of India
(later Films Division) and directed many documentaries. By
the way, this was the first movie as a hero for premanaath,
Raj's saalaa. Bhavanani made no more features after ajiit.


The first movie for the MD, S. Mohinder. It featured in
the leading roles the singing pair nirmalaa (Govinda's mom)
and aruN ahuujaa (Govinda's pop). They sang 2 duets, she
sang 5 solos. Even Mohinder Singh sang a song, "ai dil u.Daa
ke le chal". Nirmalaa, who was also the mother of producer-
director kiirti kumaar, was born on June 7, 1928 and died on
June 15, 1996. She debuted in K. B. Lal's saveraa (1942) in
which shobhanaa smarth and aruN ahuujaa were stars. She
learnt singing from her father and then from ba.De Gulaam
alii Kaan. She became known as a famous Thumarii gaayikaa
after she retired from movies in 1959.


Dilip excels as the rebel hero, with kaaminii kaushal as
heroine. Lila Chitnis played mother for the first time here.
Has good songs by Gulaam haidar, the most memorable being,
"aa jaa bedardii baalamaa koii ro ro pukaare" by Geeta and,
"badanaam naa ho jaaye muhabbat kaa fasaana" by surinder
kaur. A duet with lata and madan mohan was recorded but not
used in the movie.


jaa.N nisaar aKtar wrote songs for the first time for
this movie. I do not know which.

suhaag raat

giitaa baali became a famous movie star after this
movie directed by Kidar Sharma. She plays a suffering
village maiden, who is delightfully unsophisticated. Bharat
Bhooshan, who had earlier shot to fame as Bhakt Kabir was
saved from starvation because of this movie. People wanted
him to do more dhaarmik movies after kabiir and he refused,
thus leaving him a very poor married man.


Great music by S. D. Burman in this Dev-Suraiyaa
social. I enjoy the suraiyaa solo, "kise maaluum thaa do din
me.n saavaan biit jaayeegaa", the suraiyaa-mukesh duet,
"laaii Kushii kii duniyaa, hansatii huii javaanii", the
lailta solo, "pyaar ban ke mujh pe koii chhaaa gayaa, chhaa
gayaa re", and the amiirbaaii numbers, "jiivan jyoti
bujhatii jaaye", "bhagavan tere sansaar ke hai.N khel
niraale", "merii muniyaa.n kii akhiyan me.n tuu aa jaa". The
biin effect in the last song, a lorii, is very soothing. I
never listen to it when I am driving.

Thus ends 1948.

My sources are the usual, with one new one:

Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films, compiled and
edited by Sanjit Narwekar, published by Greenwood Press in
1994. Excellent first-hand source on Indian directors.

Surjit Singh, a diehard movie fan(atic), period.

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